Chocolate – a mixture of various substances, both organic and inorganic. Chocolate contains 50-55 % carbohydrates (saccharides), 32-35 % fat and 5-6 % protein, tannins 4-5 %, water 1 %, stimulants – theobromine and caffeine 1-1,5 %, trace elements Na, To, Mg, P, Faith, As, Сu, vitamins B1, B2 and PP, polyphenols 400 mg, and many other substances.
On average, the 100 g chocolate has 27-34 g fat, which is almost half the daily norm of consumption. The fat in the chocolate consists of cocoa butter, which is formed by glycerides of oleic acid (C18H34COOH, 35 %), stearic acid (C17H35COOH, 35 %), palmitic acid (C15H31COOH, 26 %), linoleic acid (C18H32COOH, 3 %) and 2 % other fats.
The specific properties of chocolate due to its member triglycerides of oleic acid, contained in the cocoa butter. Of the various triglycerides consists of oils and fats, most, because of this, it is not inherent to determine the melting temperature, and softening occurs in a wide temperature range. The composition of cocoa butter, conversely, uniform: central atom of glycerol linked to radical oleic acid, and the other two carbon atoms belong to balance or stearic, or palmitic acid. So brittle chocolate disappears only at its melting, ravnoy34 ° C. Moreover, we feel a pleasant coolness in the mouth, when we eat chocolate, because the process is fast melting and melting like all other substances are absorbed heat.
Basic carbohydrate chocolate - sucrose S12H22O11, sucrose is easily broken down in the body, releasing energy. Usually, on 100 gram chocolate has many carbohydrates, they are 1/8 RDA - 50-55 g.
Protein in quite a bit of chocolate - 5-8 g. These proteins contain some essential amino acids: Valine, lysine, threonine and tryptophan. But they are found in insufficient quantities to humans, therefore a valuable protein product should not be considered chocolate.
Chocolate contains caffeine (C8H10N4O2) and theobromine (C7H8N4O2), which belong to the class of alkaloids. Caffeine and theobromine increase mental and physical performance rights, temporarily relieve fatigue, drowsiness, strengthen the heart, metabolism, cause vasoconstriction and increase in blood pressure. That's why people, prone to hypertension, not recommended to abuse chocolate. Theobromine is also used in medicine as a diuretic, and caffeine use in infectious diseases and drug poisoning.
The composition of chocolate are stimulants, such as tyramine (HO-C6H4-CH2-CH2-NH2) and phenylethylamine (C8H11N). Tyramine typical vasoconstrictor effect, because of which it raises blood pressure, affect the processes of excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. A phenylethylamine is released into the blood, when one comes across an object of sympathy. Its peak concentration occurs in dating, and in between, a sharp decline in phenylethylamine manifested as sadness, chocolate so uplifting.
Tiles of dark chocolate contains about 400 mg of polyphenols, polyphenol increases the resistance of blood vessels, improve circulation, are fundamental elements, supporting tissue of the skin.
Chocolate also contains many trace elements: In, To, Mg, P, Faith, As, Сu. All these elements are very important for a person: potassium and calcium are necessary for a healthy heart, copper deficiency in the body causes a decrease in levels of protective high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and increases the risk of aortic rupture.
Almost all chocolate products added antioxidant E322 – soy lecithin. In the body, lecithins are involved in fatty acid metabolism, lecithin is used in the treatment of anemia, diseases of the nervous system.
Vitamin composition of chocolate is not diverse. It contains vitamins B1 (thiamin: C12H17ClN4OS), B2 (riboflavin: C17H20N4O6) и PP (nicotinic acid: C6H5NO2). Vitamin B1 in the human body as a result of processes of phosphorylation becomes cocarboxylase, which is a coenzyme of many enzymatic reactions. Thiamine plays an important role in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, and in the processes of neural excitation at the synapse, protects cell membranes from the toxic effects of peroxidation. The biological role of riboflavin determined entering its derivatives - coenzymes: flavin mononucleotide, flavinadenindinukleotida flavinadenindinukleotida and in the large number of major oksilitelno-reduction enzymes. Flavin enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation: Amber and other; oxidize and inactivate toxic aldehydes, break down in the body alien D-isomers of amino acids, formed in the result of the activity of bacteria; involved in the synthesis of coenzyme form of vitamin B6 and folacin; maintained in a reduced state of glutathione and hemoglobin. Nicotinic acid in the body turns into nicotinamide, which binds to kodegidrogenazy coenzymes I and II, tolerate hydrogen, involved in the metabolism of fats, protein, amino acids, purines, tissue respiration, glycogenolysis, synthetic processes.
Here's a part of us is so loved chocolate.